## Description

• Files you should submit: SExpr.hs. You should take the version that we have provided and add your solutions. Note that we have also provided AParser.hs—you are welcome to use your own AParser.hs from last week’s homework or ours, whichever you prefer.

Parsing S-expressions

In AParser.hs from last week’s homework, we now have the following:

• the definition of a basic Parser type

• a few primitive parsers such as satisfy, char, and posInt

• Functor, Applicative, and Alternative instances for Parser

Remember, for this week’s homework you should only need to write code on top of the interface provided by the Functor, Applicative, and Alternative instances. In particular, you should not write any code that depends on the details of the Parser implementation. (To help with this, the version of AParser.hs we provided this week does not even export the Parser constructor, so it is literally impossible to depend on the details!)

Exercise 1

First, let’s see how to take a parser for (say) widgets and turn it into a parser for lists of widgets. In particular, there are two functions you should implement: zeroOrMore takes a parser as input and runs it consecutively as many times as possible (which could be none, if it fails right away), returning a list of the results. zeroOrMore always succeeds. oneOrMore is similar, except that it requires the input parser to succeed at least once. If the input parser fails right away then oneOrMore also fails.

For example, below we use zeroOrMore and oneOrMore to parse a sequence of uppercase characters. The longest possible sequence of uppercase characters is returned as a list. In this case, zeroOrMore and oneOrMore behave identically:

*AParser> runParser (zeroOrMore (satisfy isUpper)) “ABCdEfgH”

Just (“ABC”,”dEfgH”)

*AParser> runParser (oneOrMore (satisfy isUpper)) “ABCdEfgH” Just (“ABC”,”dEfgH”)

The difference between them can be seen when there is not an uppercase character at the beginning of the input. zeroOrMore succeeds and returns the empty list without consuming any input; oneOrMore fails.

*AParser> runParser (zeroOrMore (satisfy isUpper)) “abcdeFGh”

Just (“”,”abcdeFGh”)

*AParser> runParser (oneOrMore (satisfy isUpper)) “abcdeFGh” Nothing

Implement zeroOrMore and oneOrMore with the following type signatures:

Hint: To parse one or more occurrences of p, run p once and then parse zero or

zeroOrMore :: Parser a -> Parser [a] oneOrMore :: Parser a -> Parser [a]

Exercise 2

There are a few more utility parsers needed before we can accomplish the final parsing task. First, spaces should parse a consecutive list of zero or more whitespace characters (use the isSpace function from the standard Data.Char module). spaces :: Parser String

*AParser> runParser ident “foobar baz”

Just (“foobar”,” baz”)

*AParser> runParser ident “foo33fA”

Just (“foo33fA”,””)

*AParser> runParser ident “2bad”

Nothing

*AParser> runParser ident “”

Nothing

more occurrences of p. To parse zero or more occurrences of p, try parsing one or more; if that fails, return the empty list.

Exercise 3

S-expressions are a simple syntactic format for tree-structured data, originally developed as a syntax for Lisp programs. We’ll close out our demonstration of parser combinators by writing a simple Sexpression parser.

An identifier is represented as just a String; the format for valid identifiers is represented by the ident parser you wrote in the previous exercise.

type Ident = String

An “atom” is either an integer value (which can be parsed with posInt) or an identifier.

data Atom = N Integer | I Ident

Finally, an S-expression is either an atom, or a list of S-expressions.1 1 Actually, this is slightly different than the usual definition of S-expressions

data SExpr = A Atom

| Comb [SExpr] in Lisp, which also includes binary “cons” cells; but it’s good enough for our purposes.

deriving Show deriving Show

Textually, S-expressions can optionally begin and end with any number of spaces; after throwing away leading and trailing spaces they consist of either an atom, or an open parenthesis followed by one or more S-expressions followed by a close parenthesis.

atom ::= int

| ident

S ::= atom

| (S⇤)

For example, the following are all valid S-expressions:

5 foo3

(bar (foo) 3 5 874)

(((lambda x (lambda y (plus x y))) 3) 5)

( lots of ( spaces in ) this ( one ) )

We have provided Haskell data types representing S-expressions in SExpr.hs. Write a parser for S-expressions, that is, something of type parseSExpr :: Parser SExpr

Hints: To parse something but ignore its output, you can use the

(*>) and (<*) operators, which have the types

(*>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f b

(<*) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f a

p1 *> p2 runs p1 and p2 in sequence, but ignores the result of

p1 and just returns the result of p2. p1 <* p2 also runs p1 and p2 in sequence, but returns the result of p1 (ignoring p2’s result) instead.

For example:

*AParser> runParser (spaces *> posInt) ” 345″

Just (345,””)

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