CS2030S Solved

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1. Consider the Rectangle class below:
public class Rectangle { private double width; private double height;
public Rectangle(double width, double height) {
this.width = width; this.height = height;
public double getArea() {
return this.width * this.height;
public String toString() {
return “Width: ” + this.width + ” Height: ” + this.height; }
The method Rectangle::getArea is expected to return the product of its width and height.
jshell> new Rectangle(5, 8) $.. ==> Width: 5.0 Height: 8.0 jshell> new Rectangle(5, 8).getArea() $.. ==> 40.0
We would like to design a class Square that inherits from Rectangle . A Square instance must satisfy the constraint that the four sides are always of the same length.
(a) Create a class called Square with a single constructor method such that we have the following output from JShell .
jshell> new Square(5) $.. ==> Width: 5.0 Height: 5.0 jshell> new Square(5).getArea()
$.. ==> 25.0
Calling getArea on a Square instance returns the square of its width (or equivalently, its height).
(b) Now, implement two separate methods to set the width and height of the rectangle in the
Rectangle class.
public void setHeight(double height) {
this.height = height;
public void setWidth(double width) {
this.width = width;
The Rectangle class is expected to behave as follows:
jshell> Rectangle r = new Rectangle(5, 5) jshell> r.setHeight(5) jshell> r.setWidth(9) jshell> r.getArea() $.. ==> 45.0
Specifically, if the most recent call to setWidth is setWidth(w) and the most recent call to setHeight is setHeight(h) , then getArea() must return w * h .
Explain how the behavior of the Square class is undesirably affected by this addition.
(c) Now implement two overriding methods in the Square class:
public void setHeight(double height) {
super.setHeight(height); super.setWidth(height);
public void setWidth(double width) {
super.setHeight(width); super.setWidth(width);
These methods overrides the methods in Rectangle so that the width and height can no longer be set independently.
Do you think that it is still sensible to have Square inherit from Rectangle ?
(d) Is it sensible for Rectangle to inherit from Square instead?
2. Consider the following interfaces:
public interface Shape {
public double getArea();
public interface Printable {
public void print();
(a) Suppose class Circle implements both interfaces above. Given the following program fragment,
Circle c = new Circle(new Point(0,0), 10);
Shape s = c;
Printable p = c;
Are the following statements allowed? Why do you think the Java compiler does not allow some of the following statements?
i. s.print(); ii. p.print();
iii. s.getArea(); iv. p.getArea();
(b) Someoneproposestore-implement Shape and Printable asabstractclassesinstead? Would this work?
(c) Can we define another interface PrintableShape as
public interface PrintableShape extends Printable, Shape {
} and let class Circle implement PrintableShape instead?
(d) Using examples of overriding methods, illustrate why a Java class cannot inherit from multiple parent classes, but can implement multiple interfaces.
Past Year Questions
These questions are provided here for discussion among yourselves (e.g., on Piazza). We will not discuss these during the recitations.
Consider the following four classes:
class A {
void foo(A a) {
System.out.println(“class: A, parameter: A”); }
class B extends A {
@Override void foo(A a) {
System.out.println(“class: B, parameter: A”);
void foo(B a) {
System.out.println(“class: B, parameter: B”); }
class C extends B {
void foo(C a) {
System.out.println(“class: C, parameter: C”); }
class D extends C {
@Override void foo(B a) {
System.out.println(“class: D, parameter: B”); }
We initialize four variables as follows:
A a = new D();
B b = new D();
C c = new D();
D d = new D();
What will be printed if we call:
(a) a.foo(d);
(b) b.foo(d);
(c) c.foo(d);
(d) d.foo(d);
Consider the following classes.
The class Time encapsulates a time measurement in units of seconds and milliseconds.
class Time {
public int second; public int millisecond;
public Time(int second, int millisecond) {
this.second = second; this.millisecond = millisecond;
The class Interval encapsulates a time interval and consists of a starting time (begin) and an ending time (end).
class Interval {
private Time begin; private Time end;
public Interval(Time begin, Time end) {
this.begin = begin; this.end = end;
public int durationInMs() {
return (end.second * 1000 + end.millisecond)
­ (begin.second * 1000 + begin.millisecond); }
A Jiffy is an interval with a fixed duration of 10ms.
class Jiffy extends Interval {
public Jiffy() {
super(new Time(0, 0), new Time(0, 10));
public int durationInMs() {
return 10;
(a) The code above violates information hiding. True or false? Why?
(b) The code above violates the ”tell, don’t ask” principle. True or false? Why?
(c) The code above violates the Liskov substitution principle. True or false? Why?


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