DSA – Important Solved

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There are general homework guidelines you must always follow. If you fail to follow any of the following guidelines, you risk receiving a 0 for the entire assignment.
1. All submitted code must compile under JDK 11. This includes unused code, so don’t submit extra files that don’t compile. Any compile errors will result in a 0.
2. Do not include any package declarations in your classes.
3. Do not change any existing class headers, constructors, instance/global variables, or method signatures. For example, do not add throws to the method headers since they are not necessary.
4. Do not add additional public methods.
5. Do not use anything that would trivialize the assignment. (e.g. Don’t import/use java.util.ArrayList for an ArrayList assignment. Ask if you are unsure.)
6. Always be very conscious of efficiency. Even if your method is to be O(n), traversing the structure multiple times is considered inefficient unless that is absolutely required (and that case is extremely rare).
7. You must submit your source code, the .java files, not the compiled .class files.
8. Only the last submission will be graded. Make sure your last submission has all required files. Resubmitting will void all previous submissions.
9. After you submit your files, redownload them and run them to make sure they are what you intended to submit. You are responsible if you submit the wrong files.
Style and Formatting
Javadoc any helper methods you create in a style similar to the existing javadocs. Any javadocs you write must be useful and describe the contract, parameters, and return value of the method. Random or useless javadocs added only to appease checkstyle will lose points.
Vulgar/Obscene Language
Any submission that contains profanity, vulgar, or obscene language will receive an automatic zero on the assignment. This policy applies not only to comments/javadocs, but also things like variable names. Exceptions
When throwing exceptions, you must include a message by passing in a String as a parameter. The message must be useful and tell the user what went wrong. “Error”, “BAD THING HAPPENED”, and “fail” are not good messages. The name of the exception itself is not a good message. For example:
Bad: throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(‘‘Index is out of bounds.’’);
If available, use the generic type of the class; do not use the raw type of the class. For example, use new LinkedList<Integer>() instead of new LinkedList(). Using the raw type of the class will result in a penalty.
Forbidden Statements
• package
• System.arraycopy()
• clone()
• assert()
• Arrays class
• Array class
• Thread class
• Collections class
• Collection.toArray()
• Reflection APIs
• Inner or nested classes
• Lambda Expressions
• Method References (using the :: operator to obtain a reference to a method)
If you’re not sure on whether you can use something, and it’s not mentioned here or anywhere else in the homework files, just ask.
Debug print statements are fine, but nothing should be printed when we run your code. We expect clean runs – printing to the console when we’re grading will result in a penalty. If you submit these, we will take off points.
If you need help on running JUnits, there is a guide, available on Canvas under Files, to help you run JUnits on the command line or in IntelliJ.
You are to code an ArrayList, which is a list data structure backed by an array where all of the data is contiguous and aligned with index 0 of the array.
The ArrayList must follow the requirements stated in the javadocs of each method you must implement. A constructor stub is provided for you to fill out.
The starting capacity of the ArrayList should be the constant INITIAL CAPACITY defined in ArrayList.java. Reference the constant as-is. Do not simply copy the value of the constant. Do not change the constant. If, while adding an element, the ArrayList does not have enough space, you should regrow the backing array to twice its old capacity. Do not resize the backing array when removing elements.
You will implement three add() methods. One will add to the front, one will add to the back, and one will add to anywhere in the list given a specific index. When adding to the front or the middle of the list, subsequent elements must be shifted back one position to make room for the new data. See the javadocs for more details.
You will also implement three remove() methods – from the front, the back, or anywhere in the list given a specific index. When removing from the front or from the middle of the list, the element should be removed and all subsequent elements should be shifted forward by one position. When removing from the back, the last element should be set to null in the array. All unused positions in the backing array must be set to null. See the javadocs for more details.
Amortized Efficiency
The efficiency of methods and algorithms in this course is often analyzed using a “per operation” analysis. That is, what is the worst this algorithm can do on any one instance? However, there are times where this type of analysis is unrealistically pessimistic. For example, in this homework, the addToBack() method is O(1) for the most part except in the case of resizing, which is O(n). However, a resize operation is rare enough that it’d be misleading to say that the method is O(n).
In cases like this, we use an amortized analysis. This type of analysis adds up the cost of a series of operations and then averages the cost. Here, the resize step is O(n), but since we double the capacity whenever the array gets full, we’ve put off resizing for another n add operations. So, putting that together with the common, cheap O(1) operations, we get O(1) using this analysis. Whenever this type of analysis is used, we will prefix the Big-O with the word amortized.
There are two ways of defining objects as equal: reference equality and value equality.
Reference equality is used when using the == operator. If two objects are equal by reference equality, that means that they have the exact same memory locations. For example, say we have a Person object with a name and id field. If you’re using reference equality, two Person objects won’t be considered equal unless they have the exact same memory location (are the exact same object), even if they have the same name and id.
Keep in mind which makes more sense to use while you are coding. You will want to use value equality in most cases in this course when comparing objects. Notable cases where you’d use reference equality include checking for null or comparing primitives (in this case, it’s just the == operator being overloaded).
Differences between Java API and This Assignment
Some of the methods in this assignment are called different things or don’t exist in Java’s ArrayList class. This won’t matter until you tackle coding questions on the first exam, but it’s something to be aware of. The list below shows all methods with a different name and their Java API equivalent if it exists. The format is assignment method name ⇒ Java API name.
• addAtIndex(int index, T data)⇒add(int index, T data)
• addToFront(T data)⇒ no explicit method
• addToBack(T data)⇒add(T data)
• removeAtIndex(int index)⇒remove(int index)
• removeFromFront()⇒ no explicit method
• removeFromBack()⇒ no explicit method
Here is the grading breakdown for the assignment. There are various deductions not listed that are incurred when breaking the rules listed in this PDF and in other various circumstances.
constructor 1pts
addAtIndex 15pts
addToFront 11pts
addToBack 11pts
removeAtIndex 11pts
removeFromFront 7pts
removeFromBack 7pts
get 6pts
isEmpty 3pts
clear 3pts
Checkstyle 10pts
Efficiency 15pts
Total: 100pts
The following file(s) have been provided to you. There are several, but we’ve noted the ones to edit.
1. ArrayList.java
This is the class in which you will implement the ArrayList. Feel free to add private helper methods but do not add any new public methods, inner/nested classes, instance variables, or static variables.
2. ArrayListStudentTest.java
This is the test class that contains a set of tests covering the basic operations on the ArrayList class. It is not intended to be exhaustive and does not guarantee any type of grade. Write your own tests to ensure you cover all edge cases.
You must submit all of the following file(s). Make sure all file(s) listed below are in each submission, as only the last submission will be graded. Make sure the filename(s) matches the filename(s) below, and that only the following file(s) are present. The only exception is that Canvas will automatically append a -n depending on the submission number to the file name(s). This is expected and will be handled by the TAs when grading as long as the file name(s) before this add-on matches what is shown below. If you resubmit, be sure only one copy of each file is present in the submission. If there are multiple files, do not zip up the files before submitting; submit them all as separate files.
Once submitted, double check that it has uploaded properly on Canvas. To do this, download your uploaded file(s) to a new folder, copy over the support file(s), recompile, and run. It is your sole responsibility to re-test your submission and discover editing oddities, upload issues, etc.
1. ArrayList.java


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